Ultrasonic level measurement is one of a number of non-contact techniques available. The principle of the ultrasonic level gauge is that energy from an ultrasonic source above the liquid is reflected back from the liquid surface into an ultrasonic energy detector, as illustrated in Figure. Measurement of the time of flight allows the liquid level to be inferred. In alternative versions, the ultrasonic source is placed at the bottom of the vessel containing the liquid, and the time of flight between emission, reflection off the liquid surface and detection back at the bottom of the vessel is measured.
Ultrasonic pulses are produced piezoelectrically applying voltage.
Ultrasonic techniques are especially useful in measuring the position of the interface between two immiscible liquids contained in the same vessel, or measuring the sludge or precipitate level at the bottom of a liquid-filled tank. In either case, the method employed is to fix the ultrasonic transmitter–receiver transducer at a known height in the upper liquid, as shown in Figure 17.5. This establishes the level of the liquid/liquid or liquid/sludge level in absolute terms. When using ultrasonic instruments, it is essential that proper compensation is made for the working temperature if this differs from the calibration temperature, since the speed of ultrasound through air varies with temperature.
Ultrasound speed also has a small sensitivity to humidity, air pressure and carbon dioxide concentration, but these factors are usually insignificant. Temperature compensation can be achieved in two ways. Firstly, the operating temperature can be measured and an appropriate correction made. Secondly, and preferably, a comparison method can be used in which the system is calibrated each time it is used by measuring the transit time of ultrasonic energy between two known reference points. This second method takes account of humidity, pressure and carbon dioxide concentration variations as well as providing temperature compensation. With appropriate care, measurement uncertainty can be reduced to about š1%.